"Bear in mind that the wonderful things you learn in your schools are the work of many generations, produced by enthusiastic effort and infinite labor in every country of the world. All this is put into your hands as your inheritance in order that you may receive it, honor it, add to it, and one day faithfully hand it to your children. Thus do we mortals achieve immortality in the permanent things which we create in common." - Albert Einstein
Showing posts with label Mother Tongue Based - Multilingual Education. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mother Tongue Based - Multilingual Education. Show all posts

Monday, July 30, 2012

On Human Rights, Linguistic Rights, and Mother-Tongue Based Multilingual Education

These words are huge and complex. Each one represents a value, an expression of importance. These are supposedly beacons to guide priorities. Justice, one of the seven values that guided Finland's education reform, is another big word. And in Pasi Sahlberg's words, this entailed "Attaining the goal of offering equal opportunities to a quality education for all has required creating and maintaining a socially just school network."


"Education for All" encompasses all the words in the title of this post. It is the yardstick that must be used to gauge education reforms in the Philippines, including DepEd's K to 12. It must be the primary objective, the rule that should set priorities. When DepEd spends money, time and effort on advertising its new curriculum in shopping malls, one should ask if these efforts are indeed in line with the priorities set by "Education for All".  When DepEd institutes the use of the mother tongue as medium of instruction, one must ask if this is a genuine effort for inclusive education. When DepEd jumps into new approaches, one must ask if basic needs have been provided first.

Leo Ortega Laparan II has been writing a series of article in the Manila Bulletin describing the current situation of schools in the northern islands of the Philippines. The latest in this series talks about Cadadalman Elementary School in Camiguin Norte Island. There are overcrowded classes, lack of textbooks, and poor facilities. The head teacher had the following to share:
“We even use the backstage to hold Grade 4 classes. For that, schoolchildren would have to endure the heat… even us teachers. At present, we lack a school building because of the Preparatory (referring to Kindergarten) classes, which became mandatory effective last year. That makes it seven years for us now. The kids won’t be allowed to enter Grade 1 without taking Prep. That’s why the room that you saw earlier was divided into two. We just chose the best room in terms of safety to ensure the wellbeing of the little children.” 
 The situation in Camiguin Elementary School is no different, as reported earlier in this series by Laparan. Classrooms no longer have ceilings and walls are cracked. Pupils hold umbrellas to keep themselves dry when it rains since their rooms no longer protect them from the elements. With regard to textbooks, as many as ten pupils share one copy and for science in Grade 3, for instance, a 1985 edition is still in use. These stories from the north do highlight the shortages Philippine schools continue to face. Although these islands are indeed remote, one must not be blind to the shortages in schools that are in the neighborhood of the Congress as well as in the public schools near the national offices of the Department of Education. It is a question of priorities, do we put up a display or presentation of K to 12 in the shopping malls or do we send books to Camiguin first?

Inclusive education is a high priority. The rationale behind mother tongue education partly rests on pupils' basic rights. This is in addition to preserving and nurturing cultural heritage. In a recently held International Conference on Teacher Education, Prof. Romylyn Metila of the UP College of Education presented a paper on “The Role of Teacher Education in Championing Linguistic Human Rights (LHR) and Effective Language Learning through Multilingual Education (MLE): A Fight for Fairness”. In the presentation, Metila stressed the need to examine closely the provisions of policies aimed at addressing linguistic rights and mother tongue education. Factors that require thoughtful considerations were enumerated. First, there is a need to recognize that the Philippines is really diverse in terms of languages. There are more than one hundred and fifty languages in the country. Second, the appropriateness and adequacy of these languages to serve as medium of instruction must be evaluated. Third, the spelling and grammar of these languages need to be set before these languages can be extensively used in reading and writing. And of course, last but not the least, the question of how prepared teachers are was likewise raised. The importance of educating the young on their native culture and tongue is not debatable. What requires careful examination are the pedagogical and practical sides of the argument. And these sides are best handled by the teachers and principals in their own respective schools. Inclusive education should be the main goal of the Department of Education in the Philippines. How the academic performance of students in the Philippines could be enhanced is the job of the teacher and not of a bureaucracy.

Sr. Ma. Famita Somogod, Rural Missionaries of the Philippines-Northern Mindanao Sub-Region (RMP-NMR) coordinator, has this to say:

"...Even as the government has identified education as its priority service, the indigenous peoples of Mindanao view it as a “vague illusion.” Accredited schools supposedly established for indigenous peoples were built or established in areas far from the communities. Many residents are also unable to pay even the smallest fees, and some of the Lumad children spend their formative years in community alternative learning schools usually established with the aid of non-government organizations. Even in the rare situations where communities are benefited by a literacy and numeracy school, these are not sustained because of counter-insurgency operations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Instead of protecting the communities from rebel groups, the communities have become the targets of the operations. Militarization and war have resulted to human rights violations, exacerbating the living conditions of the already impoverished indigenous communities, with indigenous children becoming most vulnerable...

...In a conflict situation, children are robbed of both their right to learn and their right to live a child’s life. They are forced to violent realities too early, forced to experience terror too often. And this is not yet even going into the post-conflict trauma that these children suffer. Without access to education, there will be no room for indigenous communities to promote personal development, strengthen respect for human rights and freedoms, and enable individuals to participate freely in a free society...."
To read more,  visit http://www.internal-displacement.org/8025708F004CE90B/(httpDocuments)/48B4F5D25D01D17EC1257A09004EFAA7/$file/Education+and+Militarization+of+IP+Comm+-+Our+Experience+as+Rural+Missionaries+in+Mindanao+april+2012.pdf

 The following are videos depicting the current plight of the Mamanwa tribe of Agusan del Norte:


These are stories from the north and the south. These stories hopefully can help us understand better the words in the title of this post.

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Mother Tongue Based - Multilingual Education : The Strategy?

"A flawed execution of a good idea could convince people it is a bad idea – and that could kill this push for reform." - Bill Gates

"If the SWS poll showing 65% of Filipinos support K+12 could be believed, then a flawed execution of a bad idea could actually convince people that it is such a great idea!" -Sheila Lacanaria

_________________________________________________________________

Even if it does not work, it is still a good idea...

DepEd's K to12 is an example of a gargantuan reform that is founded on a set of promises made by President Aquino. Yet, it even includes additional elements that are not in the original campaign platform and some even runs contrary. No formal subject of science in the early years runs contrary to the promotion of science education. Dilution of high school curriculum to include instruction that is better learned at home or other venues likewise contributes to congestion of the curriculum and a decreased emphasis on science. The spiral approach, not included in the promises, by itself is already gigantic. Both size and scope of DepEd's K to 12 come from various interests that have been blended and combined into one enormous package. By doing so, DepEd's K to 12 has something to offer to everyone who has a say or influence on how Philippine basic education should be reformed. It does not matter whether some elements may be disagreeable, as long as there is one element to which an influential group strongly subscribes. Each element has its own set of followers with zeal, who would be willing to turn a blind eye to the other elements. There are people who think that 12 years of basic education is a must. DepEd's K to 12 caters to this set since these people do not care if the other elements of the new curriculum are wrong as long as it involves two additional years. There are educators who are completely convinced that a spiral incursion through disciplines is the way to go. As long as this element is present in the new curriculum, everything is acceptable. DepEd's K to 12 thus caters to various sectors by providing each one with a piece of the pie. And since everything goes, why not add a new grading system. This may attract additional support and steer the discussion away from the real problems such as shortages in resources as well as poor salaries and working conditions of teachers. These interests become united into one since conviction behind one element is so strong that compromises are easy enough to swallow. "At least, we are getting what we want, never mind the entire picture," describes the underlying justification. Some who have advocated intensely for mother tongue education are no exception.


Preserving and nurturing one's culture is very important. For this reason, basic education must include sharing and learning one's heritage. This is one of the many interests DepEd's K to 12 utilizes to garner support for the entire program. "Never mind the details, it is there."


Joe Padre, who has been maintaining an impressive blog on multilingual Philippines, shares the following email message from Lino Gerona:
____________________________________________________________________


http://mlephil.wordpress.com/
Downloaded from MLErs: We took our eyes off the ball…

Lino Gerona:

"I am at DepEd’s RELC in Marikina as a reviewer of instructional materials in Sinugbuanong Binisaya. Been here since July 8. Will be home July 13 as I will be in Cagayan de Oro July 13-16. Dr. Jes Tirol is here to review the mathematics materials. 
Here are translation, review and encoding teams for twelve languages: Ilocano, Pangasinan, Kapampanagan, Tagalog, Bicol, Waray, Hiligaynon, Sinugbuanon, Meranao, Maguindanao, Bahasa Sug, Chavacano de Zamboanga...."
Joe Padre offers the following insightful comments:
"This last-minute effort to catch up with learning materials for (multilingual education) MLE at this late stage since DepEd Order No. 74 was promulgated in July 2009, just tells me that we, MLE advocates, took our eyes off the ball; we failed miserably to follow up closely on the hills of Deped Order No. 74. Our thinking that Deped Order No. 74 was a huge victory lulled us into forgetting that there was a lot of follow-up activity to be done immediately after the Order institutionalizing the use of MTB-MLE nationwide was signed. For one, we failed miserably to recognize and involve experienced writers in the target languages, hence DepEd, as per the aforementioned email, has to scramble with “translation, review and encoding teams” to generate the learning materials so required and stipulated in DepEd Order 74."
_________________________________________________________________

Using the mother tongue as medium of instruction is different from preserving and nurturing one's culture or heritage. It is distinct from promoting and protecting native languages. The former requires what is discussed above, preparation of teaching and learning materials in the various languages while the latter requires recruitment of scholars to begin and continue writing within local context of each community, to expand the literature in these cultures, and to formalize and preserve the language. The former uses the mother tongue while the latter promotes the mother tongue. The former requires data and evidence because it hinges on the claim that instruction using the mother tongue as medium is more effective. The latter does not because it is founded on the basic notion that each culture and each language in this world is part of the globe's entire human heritage. The latter can aid the former since scholars in the native tongue are also required in developing learning materials in the mother tongue, but the former, the use of the mother tongue as medium of instruction, will not necessarily protect, expand and nurture the mother tongue and culture.  

The mother tongue as medium of instruction is pushed as a proven and effective element in early years education. This is true especially if a foreign medium is used to suppress and oppress. Whether it is indeed pedagogically sound is, however, debatable. Yet, we see columns like the one recently written in the Inquirer, that claim otherwise:

_________________________________________________________________

Butch Hernandez
Philippine Daily Inquirer
"...DepEd has taken a step, actually two, to aggressively initiate genuine and lasting changes to basic education. First, it promulgated Department Order 74 in 2009 calling for the implementation of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTBMLE) across the public school system. This year, DepEd has set in motion a series of measures that repurposes learning around a 12-year curriculum, more popularly known as K to 12. 
Both MTBMLE and K to 12 are not new, both as concepts and as education practice. There are volumes of evidence from schools and education institutions all over the world that prove beyond all doubt that using the child’s mother tongue as a medium of instruction in the early years greatly helps that child succeed in school. And most countries now have basic education cycles that are founded on a 12-year curriculum...."
Singapore, one of the top performing countries in international exams, does not use MTBMLE. Instead, Singapore uses English as the medium of instruction. If indeed there is no doubt that using the child's mother tongue as medium of instruction is better then the states of Arizona and California, which without any doubt, has more resources than the Philippines, should not have the problems they face at the moment. The Supreme Court of the United States would have easily decided in favor of multilingual instruction if Hernandez' claim above is true. But DepEd's K to 12 is really a smorgasbord, so we should switch to a different angle. It will prepare the youth and provide skills making them more employable. Now, that is a strategy. Mix and blend various interests and then switch arguments.


But the worse part of the strategy is drawing a reform that really has no chance of success. In this manner, the implementation could be blamed and not the idea. The strategy thus ends with:


"DepEd's K to 12 critics simply did not give the new curriculum a chance."

Friday, July 6, 2012

Mother Tongue Based - Multilingual Education : A Barrier to Cognitive Development?

Perhaps, children need to be taught to think first.
The desire to make classrooms enjoyable for children can work against education if the fact that learning requires work is ignored. Cognitive development is a process, and like other processes, requires both time and energy. Learning is rewarding and with children, the effort alone is integral to developing the brain. Without challenges, the brain will not master thinking processes. Making classrooms enjoyable means equipping the schools with the necessary materials and inputs for education, supporting adequately the teachers. It means creating an environment that is physically conducive to learning. It does not mean lowering the standards and expectations.

Having the mother tongue in school is important as it provides children a sense of familiarity, easing their transition from home to school. Learning to read and write in the mother tongue as a formal subject in the early years is, without doubt, important. Using the mother tongue as a medium of instruction is the questionable part. Claims have been made that children learn faster and more effectively when instruction is done in the mother tongue. Indeed, browsing through the internet, one will arrive at numerous articles that either support or dismiss this notion. For this reason, it is important to examine the evidence behind these claims. The lack of learning materials on science and math in the mother tongue requires a serious inspection of how the medium of instruction affects children in their cognitive development. Adopting mother tongue based - multilingual education requires substantial investments in money, time and energy.

To understand the role of the medium of instruction on learning, a deeper examination of what constitutes learning is required. While papers on how the medium of instruction affects learning abound, I would like to focus on a recent one published in the Journal of Education and Practice:
http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEP
Specifically, the article of interest is
Role of Medium of Instruction on the Development of Cognitive ProcessesPDF
Pritimayee Senapati, Nirlipta Patnaik, Manaswini Dash60-68

The assessment of the students in this published study included the following tests (pp. 62-63):
Matching Numbers. This is a measure of planning. The test comprises rows of numbers. Each
row contains six numbers. The child’s task is to find and underline the two numbers that are the same in each row within a specified time limit. Each correct pair of matching numbers gets a score of ‘1’. The raw scores are transformed to a ratio score using the score conversion table.
Planned Connection. This is a measure of planning. In this test, the child’s task is to connect a
series of boxes containing numbers or letters in correct sequence. Some items involve a sequence of numbers only, while others involve a sequence of both numbers and letters (that is 1-a-2-b-3-c, etc.).Time taken to complete each item is recorded. The sum of the time taken for each item is the raw score. 
Non-verbal Matrices. This test of simultaneous processing requires the child to select one of the
options that best completes the matrix. The subtest uses the standard progressive matrix format and varies from completion of a simple pattern to completion of a 3×3 matrix of stimuli. A score of ‘1’ is given to each item passed. 
Figure Memory. This is a test of simultaneous processing which requires the child to identify a
geometric figure that is embedded within a more complex design. The stimulus figure is exposed for five seconds. The child is required to reproduce the same figure within a more complex design presented on a separate page. Each correct response obtains a score of ‘1’. 
Expressive Attention. This is a measure of attention. The child’s task is to read colour names
such as ‘blue’ and ‘yellow’ (item -1), to identify the colours of a series of rectangles(item -2) and then to identify the colour of the ink in which colour words are printed rather than to read the words (item 3). Basing on the correct number of responses in the item-3 and the time taken to complete it, the score is obtained using the conversion table. 
Receptive Attention. This test of attention requires the child to find and underline pairs of letters
that are the same from among rows of letters which contain both targets (pairs that match) and distracters (pairs that do not match). The child has to underline pairs of letters that are physically the same and have the same name. The raw score constitute the sum of ratio scores for both the physical as well as name match condition which are obtained from number of correct as well as the false detections and the time taken to complete each item using the ratio score conversion table. 
Word Series. This test measures successive processing. Here the child’s task is to repeat a series of words in the same order in which the examiner says them. A score of ‘1’ is given for correct recall of the words in their correct order. 
Sentence Repetition. This is a test of successive processing in which the child’s task is to repeat a series of sentences spoken by the examiner. The sentences contain colour names in place of content words. Perfect repetition of the sentence obtains a score of ‘1’.
And the authors present their results in the following table (p. 67): 
The paper also includes an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The authors share their discussion and conclusions from the study in the paper. One of their main conclusions is that "English Medium schooling has been found to facilitate the development of the cognitive processes studied." And their explanation (p.64):
"...Getting education through English involves differential curricular pressure and cognitive demands on the part of the students. The student has to understand the instructions presented in English which is not his mother tongue, to develop linguistic competence in it and simultaneously master the course content. For Odia medium children the task is much simpler as they have to master the course content only using a language already acquired earlier at home. However, this tougher task demand at an early age helps in faster development of cognitive processes in the children being educated through English medium...."
Statisticians could probably do additional analysis of the data presented in this paper but a cursory look at the numbers already reveals that the claim that instruction using the mother tongue is more effective may not be generally true. 

Closer to home, Rudy Coronel writes in his blog: 

WITH MTB-MLE PROGRAM, THE DEPED MUST BE KIDDING!

:
"....The MTB-MLE is allegedly based on studies that showed that children who were taught in their dialect learned better than those who were taught in their second language, which is either Filipino or English.  I really do not know in which particular region the said study was conducted.  For its result  to be fair and conclusive, was there also a parallel study conducted in schools in the Tagalog region? 
I mean, one is made to understand that, according to the study, Bicolandia children who were taught via the Bicol dialect, for example, had learned better than when they were taught in English or Pilipino.  But how conclusive is the study and its findings?  Does it also apply in the Tagalog region, for example.  That is to say, the mother tongue is Filipino in this region, where the medium of instruction has always been Filipino in the lower grades. Has there also been a study showing that children in Bulacan, Laguna, Quezon and Batangas have generally been fast and better learners than their counterparts in the Bicol or Ilocos region?  I don't think and I refuse to believe so.  I think that people from the DEPED themselves will in good conscience admit the plain truth that, taking all other variables equal, our public school children in the Tagalog provinces are just generally in the same degree of learning capabilities and aptitudes as their counterparts in the non-Tagalog regions.  More clearly put, Kinder-to-Grade III children in the Tagalog regions are definitely not as better prepared for Grade IV and onwards than those from any other region.  To contradict this plain truth is not unlike contradicting human nature itself.   If there is ever a difference, I believe it is not because of the medium of instruction per se -- maybe the quality of teachers and the like...." 
Well, the following table provides the results of the National Achievement Test in 2005 and the Eastern Visayas region students scored the highest in Filipino:


And from "First Things First: A Commentary on DepEd's K +12";
...It is unfortunate that amidst the lack of sound evidence, although this paucity in data has been emphasized and repeated so many times in published reviews and articles, various components have been incorporated in the K+12 plan with “panacea” stamped on them.  The following paragraphs highlight specific examples.
The mother tongue based multiple language education (MTBMLE) is one example. In 2009, the US Supreme Court issued an opinion (Horne vs.Flores) that Structured English Immersion (SEI) works better than bilingual education.  It was a narrow decision (5 against 4) so it is not a clear judgment against MTBMLE, but it sure is a clear sign that MTBMLE is not “panacea”.  Recent news from the state ofCaliforniaalso indicates that multilingual education is likewise not working well (see “English-Learning Students Far Behind Under English-Only Methods”). 
The world experts in MTBMLE are careful in promoting MTBMLE.  To make a strong case in favor of MTBMLE, data must show that high dropout rates are unquestionably due to using a second language as medium of instruction (Smits et al., 2008). I strongly recommend taking a closer look at Table A.1 of this study by Smits et al. because thiscontains data pertinent to the Philippines. Specifically, the paper states: “The figures presented in columns 4 and 8 of the table give an indication of the part of the attendance differences that is due to differences in the background characteristics. For both age groups the reduction is 25 percent or more in 13 of the 22 countries. So in the majority of countries the background characteristics play a role of importance. This result provides support for hypothesis H1.” Hypothesis H1 of this paper is “The differences in educational outcomes among linguistic groups are (partly) due to socioeconomic differences and/or differences in urbanization of the place of living among the groups.” The Philippines lists 45 and 48% in columns 4 and 8, respectively. In this light, the Philippines is among the three odd countries listed that show very strong correlation between school retention and socioeconomic factors, the others are Ghana and Peru.  In Table B1, page 41 of the paper, data from the Philippines clearly suggest that the various language groups in the country do not differ from each other in a significant manner in terms of dropout rates....

Monday, June 11, 2012

K12 lessons from ICRISAT



Only English will make us competitive!
Frank A. Hilario
June 09, 2012
http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/280375

MANILA - Imperial Manila, your K+12 is suspect, to say the least, as would be a Filipedia. Secretary Armin Luistro, ladies and gentlemen of the Imperial Department of Education (DepEd), children, your standards are absolutely rural, belonging to the back country, certainly not primitive but definitely tribal.

People, I'm not against the DepEd counting from 1 to 12 grades, if that's all you know how to count. But with your K+12 curriculum, you are unquestionably behind the times, despite your claim of keeping up with the times. Let me give you a dose of your own educational medicine.

People, here are the Core Academic Areas of your K to 12 Basic Education Program (from the Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, gov.ph):

(1) Math
(2) Filipino
(3) English
(4) Araling Panlipunan
(5) Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao
(6) Music, Arts, Physical Education, and Health (MAPEH).

People, there are many questionable aspects of this educational package, including MAPEH, but I will confine myself this time to the core academic areas.

Notice: (2) Filipino (Language), (4) Araling Panlipunan (Social Studies), and (5) Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (Humanities, I presume). 3 out of 6; that means that 50% of the core areas are to be taught in Filipino (Tagalog). So, I must be out of my mind if I believe you people of DepEd when you claim that your K+12 program will "improve the (global) competitiveness of our country's graduates" - when did Filipino (Tagalog) ever become globally competitive?! That is a thought as ridiculous as a Filipedia.

Children, if you want to learn about teaching global competitiveness within K+12, let me take you to India, where we find the International School of Hyderabad (ISH). Yes, as a teacher I know that teachers have to learn too. ISH is a 40-year old school, set up in 1972 by parents, now 30 years institutionally under and located on the campus of the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Hyderabad. Yes, ISH has a K+12 program you should be jealous about.

ICRISAT Director General William Dar was Guest Speaker at the graduation ceremonies of ISH on 25 May 2012 at the Park Hyatt Hotel in the Banjara Hills of Hyderabad. We can learn from what he said:

The ISH's mission is to develop responsible global citizens through (the school's) proactive and adaptable professionals, evolving and progressive curriculum, and world-class facilities. Today, ISH enrols over 250 students from 26 countries and is the best school in its class in the city without a doubt.

Professors, instructors and teachers all must learn from the best!

"There are no shortcuts to success but," Dar said, "yes, there are certain competencies you can develop along the way. Let me share with you some, as my graduation gift." This is his list that I believe Philippine schools should be cultivating, starting from Kindergarten:

(1) Well-cultivated self-awareness - The first secret of success lies inside each one of us. We need to cultivate a sense of our personal strengths and be aware of our weaknesses.

(2) Compelling vision - The second secret is being visionary, to have a dream, to be driven to be better each time.

(3) Masterful execution - Leaders drive results. They possess good planning, organizing and delivery skills.


(4) Real way with people - A leader must have the ability to get others to act in the desired way. They win respect from those who must be influenced, and build mutual respect.

(5) Relevance and social contribution -Successful leaders are true change agents… They are memorable because they change people's lives for the better.

(6) Renewal and continuous learning and adaptation - Lastly, successful leaders have an uncanny ability to reinvent themselves in the face of incessant change. They have to deal with increasingly complex challenges, the need to innovate to be competitive, to understand and master technological advances and operate in a global environment.

Remember, William Dar is talking to high school graduates. How do you teach all that in Filipino (Tagalog)?!

People of DepEd, you want Filipino schoolchildren to be globally competitive? Think global, act local. Think India. Let us all learn from the International School of Hyderabad (from its website, ishyd.org):

(1) Your school must nurture a dynamic environment in which every child is valued and at the same time challenged. In the Philippines, only those in the Top 10 are valued and challenged; those who fail are passed anyway.

(2) Your school must offer individualized and personalized approach to learning. In the Philippines, if you have 50 students to a class, how do you do that? Be creative! You don't need a classroom. There is information technology waiting to be tapped. All you have to do is use your head.

(3) Place your high priority on learning how to learn, learning by doing, and thinking critically.In the Philippines, the high priority is placed on memorizing lessons, and criticizing the government's action or inaction.

"The ISH's vision is to provide high-quality holistic education in an inspiring learning environment that maximizes the potential of each individual to become a responsible global citizen" (ishyd.org). People of DepEd, your vision is local, not global.

ISH has its own curriculum "originally developed from the English National Curriculum." People of DepEd, if you want Filipino schoolchildren to become globally competitive, by all means, teach them English at all times!

How did ISH become the best? First, it borrowed from the best. So, in Grades 9-10, ISH follows the IGCSE, an international curriculum developed and administered by Cambridge University. In Grades 11-12, ISH follows the International Baccalaureate program, the most widely recognized international curriculum in the world. And ISH is accredited by 2 foreign accreditation agencies: the New England Association of Schools and Colleges, and the Council of International Schools.

Dar said, "Let me underscore that the future belongs to the young who comprise more than half the world´s population. They are speaking out and taking active leadership roles throughout society to build a world truly fit for a younger generation." People, if we teach them right, the youth are the hope of the fatherland of the future.

"As graduates of ISH," Dar said, "you have more than what it takes to lead and succeed. Go and capture your moment in the sun."

Filipino high school students could go and do likewise - but only if we teach them well, and in English. People, only the best is good enough!

_________________________________________________________________


Mga estudyante sa probinsya, naninibago sa mother tongue-based multilingual education

Date posted: Jun 11, 2012 4:12pm
ReporterMark Salazar



_________________________________________________________________



YouScooper Maria Trinidad Toriano shares this photo of students attending a class amid flood water at a public high school in Hagonoy, Bulacan.

Toriano, a teacher of the school, reports that the area is a catch basin every time there is a high tide. She adds the high tide happens every other week and that floods rise up to knee-level.

The tide only appears on certain times of the day. It starts at around 11AM and disappears at around 2PM.


Saturday, June 9, 2012

A British School where Pupils Speak 31 Languages




London, June 9 (IANS) A primary school in Britain has its own quality of "unity in diversity". Its pupils speak 31 different languages including Bangla and Sylheti forms of Bengali, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati and Punjabi besides English and several other European tongues.
The English Martyrs' Catholic School in Birmingham has 414 pupils, the Daily Mail reported.
Children attending the school who speak English as their first language are in a tiny minority.
The other languages include Afrikaans, Arabic -- Iraqi, Lingala, Sudanese and Yemeni forms, Czech, Dutch, Gaelic, Gurmukhi, Hindko, Jamaican Patois, Kachi, Mirpuri, Nepalese, Pashto, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Somali, Spanish, Sudanese, Swiss French and Yoruba.
Mirpuri and Hindko are both from Pakistan.
Despite the challenges facing teachers, the diversity appears to have improved results at the school.
School head Evelyn Harper attributes high exam scores to the value many of the pupils' home cultures place on learning.
Last year, 91 percent of pupils achieved the benchmark level four or above in English, and 89 percent in maths.
The school sometimes uses translators, as well as a "buddy" system where new students are paired with one already at the school who has the same mother-tongue and can help them start picking up English words.
Figures obtained by the Birmingham Mail revealed that more than 120 languages are spoken across the city's schools.
Despite being a Catholic school, the majority of pupils at English Martyrs hail are from a Pakistani background.
Latest government figures show that pupils who speak English as their first language are now in the minority at more than a quarter of Birmingham schools.
Records from the Department for Education showed a majority of students at 117 of the city's 430 primary and secondary schools listed a different language as their mother tongue.
The English Martyrs school recently celebrated its centenary. It was a mainly Irish Catholic background in the 1950s and 60s. Around 11 percent of students are currently Catholic.
_________________________________________________________________________________
http://www.englishmartyrs.bham.sch.uk/prospectus/School_Prospectus_2008-2009.pdf
_________________________________________________________________________________

http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/

"....As you may know, during its last inspection in Mar-09, Ofsted inspectors judged your child’s school to be good. Schools which are performing well are now inspected less often than other schools. This usually means that good schools are inspected once in five years, whilst satisfactory schools will be inspected at least once every three years...
...I am pleased to inform you that our interim assessment shows that the school’s performance has been sustained and that we can defer its next full inspection...."

The following are the Ofsted assessment reports:

Mother Tongue




Spider’s web
Saturday, June 9, 2012
I still remember the girl (and no, don’t go singing about remembering the song but not the feeling), she’s your typical girl on the street – dusky, dark haired, toes spread apart, quiet in the company of strangers until given a push. Her name was Rochelle and she was determined to return to school.
I WOULD have scoffed at all these talks about teaching in mother tongue, and looking down on it as yet another sinker to the ever-sinking standard of education. Hey, I entered kindergarten and learned English without much difficulty, and that was even though we all spoke in Tagalog (the real one because I was learning from a Tagalog mom and our home was not yet invaded by the mangled language Dabawenyos claim as Tagalog). I was good at it, too (both English and Tagalog may I say). And yes, I am preening.
By college, I was strutting my ware, woe to the clueless moron who’d cross me, I’d slay him or her with my razor-sharp English. No one tutored me, I learned it all in the classroom, very proud young me would say. It was easy, too, and everyone should go through it the same way I did.
But of course, that was decades ago, when youth and talent was always equal to not just a hard head, but swollen as swell. (Those who cannot admit that they were never mayabang or had an air or angst in their 20s are living a lie. Haha.) The years that have passed have mellowed me down since, and slapped me with life’s lessons as well.
I still remember the girl (and no, don’t go singing about remembering the song but not the feeling), she’s your typical girl on the street – dusky, dark haired, toes spread apart, quiet in the company of strangers until given a push. Her name was Rochelle and she was determined to return to school.
To return to school, however, she has to undergo the placement examination and I volunteered to tutor her and three other street girls. Algebra, high school algebra should be easy. It wasn’t. After several days of trying to communicate, we finally were able to come to an understanding of what we were really trying to learn. In a mix of Tagalog and Bisaya with the English algebraic terms, we tackled… fractions.
Yes. The subject is algebra but you cannot proceed to algebra without first tackling numbers and addition and multiplication and division. That we even reached fraction was an algebraic problem by itself. But we did draw a lot of sticks and grouped them in different numbers. But that hurdle over, we were ready to take a sample exam. Since the first part of the Algebra placement exam had some fractions there.
I borrowed a placement exam sampler, wrote the problem on the board and gave them 15 minutes to do it. That should be easy. We were able to go to 1/16, solving problems that only involve halves and fourths should be peanuts. Not.
After ten minutes, they were still not writing on their “exam paper” although their scratch paper were already getting filled up with lines that are being encircled in different numbers and groups. Fifteen minutes past, our one-hour session rounding to a close, still not one answer. I called their attention, they looked up. Blank uncomprehending stares in their expressions. “Ate, English man ‘ni,” Rochelle said.
Indeed, like all exams, the samplers were in English and they can barely talk in English much less comprehend and analyze written English. Expectedly, no one passed.
That was a long time ago, maybe five years, maybe more. But the girls who came after them were not any better.
In a cramped classroom, would a student have the guts to tell the teacher that she cannot understand the test because it’s in English? I doubt it. At the expense of being ridiculed, many would just go through the motions of answering an exam, and failing.
How many of those students we see walking from school in their uniforms and with notebooks in hand have just failed an exam? We will never know because no one is actually counting and there is that directive for teachers not to fail anyone. Thus, student goes through the motions of answering even without understanding anything while teacher goes through the motion of passing even without imparting real understanding. Every year, they march on; year per year.
Now there’s mother tongue in the first three years of education, let’s hope it will be better because that’s all we have to hold on to, hope. The classrooms are still cramped, the teachers are still not allowed to fail, the students getting rowdier.
Published in the Sun.Star Davao newspaper on June 10, 2012.

Sunday, May 27, 2012

First Things First: A Commentary on K+12

Note:

“We call it officially ‘K to 12’ not ‘K+12’.”

This is what Department of Education Secretary Armin Luistro said while explaining the department’s preference for “K to 12” to refer to DepEd’s flagship “Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program.”

While there are several variations of the 12-year basic education model used abroad with different names such as “K-12”, “K+12”, and “K12”, Luistro said that the DepEd Steering Committee preferred the use of “K to 12” as it “captures the fact that not all features are new.”

He said that “K+12” may “mislead people that it’s only 12 years and not a total of 13.”
The term “K-12”, on the other hand, is not also used because “it sometimes read wrongly as ‘K minus 12’,” said Luistro. (http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/358626/deped-it-s-k-to-12)

K to 12, K-12 or K+12....  What does matter? Should the public be simply debating the name of the curriculum or should we not dissect it to find its elements and weigh each one to see if these changes are indeed justified. Discussions or debates on the new curriculum have narrowly focused on the two additional years at the end of high school. The first of these two additional years will not happen until 2016. In the meantime, several elements will, this coming June. The article below examines these elements and demonstrates that most of these were not based on data.

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First Things First:  A Commentary on K+12 
Published in two parts in Philippine Star:
http://www.philstar.com/science-and-technology/798002/first-things-first-commentary-k12
http://www.philstar.com/science-and-technology/800468/first-things-first-commentary-k12

The basic education system of thePhilippinesfaces two major problems: (1) high dropout rates in primary and secondary schools, and (2) lack of mastery of specific skills and content as reflected in poor performance in standard tests for both Grade IV and Grade VIII (2nd year high school) students. Unfortunately, the proposed K+12 curriculum does not directly address these problems. Both dropout rate and poor performance in standard exams indicate failure in the early years of education. That these problems are caused by a congested 10-year curriculum is not strongly supported by currently available data. The international standard tests take into account both years of education and basic skills.  The standard tests ensure that students from all the participating countries had the same number of years of schooling.

The proposed K plus 12 curriculum has various components. It is useful to look at each component in deciding whether it helps address the pressing problems Philippine basic education presently faces:

(1) Kindergarten: This addresses the problems. Early childhood learning when done properly does provide a head start for elementary schools. Kindergarten prepares the child emotionally, physically and mentally for grade school.

(2) No formal subject of science in K to Grade II: This is a waste of a great opportunity. Science education in early childhood is cheap. It does not require elaborate laboratories or equipment.  Young children, in addition, are naturally inquisitive and the years of kinder to grade II are excellent for introduction of basic scientific curiosity and methods. Only having science as a formal subject can ensure that science will indeed be covered.

(3) Use of mother tongue as medium of instruction: This is very expensive. It requires competent teachers who can teach math and science using the mother tongue. There is no objection that the mother tongue must be taught as a subject in elementary schools since this allows a smoother transition from home to school.  The question of what medium should be used in instruction is separate. One medium of instruction can unite the nation. English is the best option since course materials especially from the internet are usually in English. In this respect, Singapore is a good example to follow.

(4) Spiral curriculum: This type of teaching is highly applicable to elementary schools where both science and math are still treated as general approaches.  In high school, both math and science diverge into separate disciplines. A spiral curriculum in high school will require teachers with knowledge in all these areas at a sufficient level. These required teachers are not going to be available in numbers so this program will be poorly implemented. A layered curriculum, on the other hand, is easier to implement – biology is taught in one year, chemistry in the next, physics is usually the last.  In this manner, a high school can operate with a chemistry teacher, a physics teacher and a biology teacher, and each one need not be a master of all three disciplines.

(5) Discovery-based learning: This type of learning requires longer hours and fails without sufficient guidance (see “An Analysis of the Failure of Electronic Media and Discovery Based Learning”,Clark, et al. (2009)
http://www.cogtech.usc.edu/publications/clark_etal_2009_analysis_of_the_failure_of_electronic_media.pdf). The ideal is a mix between traditional and inquiry based methods.  This is usually achieved in the sciences by having separate lecture and laboratory components.  Guidance is provided during lectures and students work on their own or as a group in the laboratory.

(6) Last but not the least (in fact, this point is crucial), the proposed K plus 12 curriculum also involves short school hours.  This seems to be an attempt to enable multiple shifts in the schools.  This goes against decongesting the curriculum. It likewise does not make it worthwhile for schoolchildren especially those who have to travel far to attend school.  This also opens opportunities for child labor as well as greater environmental (outside of school) influences on children education. Elementary schools in the US are full day so that students do have time to cover the material and, at the same time, it allows parents to work and be more productive.  A full day in school means less television, less video games, less time on the streets, and less other activities that do not contribute to a sound education of the young.

Most countries have only ten years of compulsory education. Compulsory education in the US varies from state to state, but the average requires anyone who is under 16 years of age to be either enrolled in a school or home-schooled. This means that on average, the US only has 10-11 (including kindergarten) years of compulsory education. The last two years in the US K-12 education already include courses in tertiary education. These are called advanced placement (AP) or international baccalaureate (IB) courses. Examples are calculus (up to multivariable) and AP chemistry. Students who take AP chemistry usually have already finished one year of basic chemistry and one year of advanced chemistry, so in sum, a student could have taken three years of chemistry while in high school. Some schools in the US can not offer these, and consequently, there is great heterogeneity among US schools.

Addressing basic education is a matter of prioritization. Adding kindergarten and two years to high school is estimated to cost more than 100 billion pesos.  On the other hand, to solve the two pressing problems, as UNESCO has advised, 6% of the GDP must be assigned to education. At the current funding (2.3% of GDP) of the Department of Education (DepEd), additional years will only lead to a greater demand for resources.  Adding two years to high school essentially increases the needs of a high school by 50% – teachers, classrooms, desks, toilets, learning materials, etc.  The DepEd can only answer less than half of what UNESCO deems is necessary for the 10-year basic education program. Adding two more years will stretch the budget of DepEd even further.

Implementing a new curriculum requires strong leadership at the school level. The success of a school depends a lot on the principal. A significant fraction of public schools in the Philippines currently do not have a principal or a head teacher. This clearly needs to be addressed first before any reform in curriculum is initiated. Otherwise, a new curriculum has no hope of being implemented successfully.

 Instead of trying to attack the problem at the end of high school, efforts must be focused on the early years of education. This is where the dropout rate begins to escalate and these are the years where students are failing to learn as diagnosed by the standard test scores. Resources are very much needed in the first ten years of education and kindergarten and DepEd can do a better job on these years if DepEd does not have to worry about the added senior years in high school. The government should allow its citizens to work out on their own a solution for the desired two years that aim to prepare students either for college or the workforce. College preparatory schools or community colleges can do this job and TESDA could address those who are leaning towards vocational training.

For any overwhelming policy that involves dramatic changes and budget requirements, it is important that the policy is based on good data and statistics.  The Philippines, with its financial condition, cannot afford to waste. The ten-year basic education program can work as demonstrated by a Philippine school in Qatar(see “Do Filipino schools make the grade?” http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/130893-do-filipino-schools-make-the-grade.html) The Philippine school at Doha, Qatar participated in PISA 2009 and their scores were: Science (466), Math: (461) andReading: (480). These scores place the Philippines near the average scores of participating countries.

 The problems concerning basic education that developing countries face are enormous and complex.  A few years from now, the international donor community will look at how close governments they have funded to improve education have reached the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). It is highly likely that the Philippines will not meet the second item in the MDG, universal primary education:
MDG (2nd bullet under item 19):

“We resolve that…
….To ensure that, by the same date (2015), children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling and that girls and boys will have equal access to all levels of education.”
(http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.pdf)

With regard to this goal, here are the indicators for thePhilippines: Percentage of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5, both sexes (last updated: 09 Aug 2011): 2001 (75.3), 2002 (73.4), 2003 (72.2), 2004 (71.5), 2005 (70.4), 2006 (73.2), 2007 (75.3)
(see http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/SeriesDetail.aspx?srid=591&crid=608) Other data have been summarized, for example, in the following article in Business World:
http://www.bworldonline.com/Research/economicindicators.php?id=0498. It is understandable that the Philippine government is under tremendous pressure and it seems that a magic potion is required. However, what is lacking in most of the components proposed is a thoughtful and careful consideration of evidence and data. It is unfortunate that amidst the lack of sound evidence, although this paucity in data has been emphasized and repeated so many times in published reviews and articles, various components have been incorporated in the K+12 plan with “panacea” stamped on them.  The following paragraphs highlight specific examples.

 The mother tongue based multiple language education (MTBMLE) is one example. In 2009, the US Supreme Court issued an opinion (Horne vs.Flores) that Structured English Immersion (SEI) works better than bilingual education.  It was a narrow decision (5 against 4) so it is not a clear judgment against MTBMLE, but it sure is a clear sign that MTBMLE is not “panacea”.  Recent news from the state ofCaliforniaalso indicates that multilingual education is likewise not working well (see “English-Learning Students Far Behind Under English-Only Methods”
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/10/25/english-learning-students_n_1030990.html). The world experts in MTBMLE are careful in promoting MTBMLE.  To make a strong case in favor of MTBMLE, data must show that high dropout rates are unquestionably due to using a second language as medium of instruction (Smits et al., 2008,  http://www.google.com/url?sa=D&q=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0017/001787/178702e.pdf&usg=AFQjCNGSnXhP_wNvmcAOpNCrDC6OZmuFhw ). I strongly recommend taking a closer look at Table A.1 of this study by Smits et al. because this
contains data pertinent to the Philippines. Specifically, the paper states: “The figures presented in columns 4 and 8 of the table give an indication of the part of the attendance differences that is due to differences in the background characteristics. For both age groups the reduction is 25 percent or more in 13 of the 22 countries. So in the majority of countries the background characteristics play a role of importance. This result provides support for hypothesis H1.” Hypothesis H1 of this paper is “The differences in educational outcomes among linguistic groups are (partly) due to socioeconomic differences and/or differences in urbanization of the place of living among the groups.” The Philippines lists 45 and 48% in columns 4 and 8, respectively. In this light, the Philippines is among the three odd countries listed that show very strong correlation between school retention and socioeconomic factors, the others are Ghana and Peru.  In Table B1, page 41 of the paper, data from the Philippines clearly suggest that the various language groups in the country do not differ from each other in a significant manner in terms of dropout rates.

Another aspect of the K+12 plan that has been promoted without scrutiny is the length of instructional hours.  This is intimately related to multiple shifts in schools.  This area, as experts have warned, is likewise characterized by scarce good data.  There are large amounts of data that contain information regarding the length of instruction and learning outcomes, but these data involve so many additional factors.  Nonetheless. amidst these complicated cases, one thing is clear: “….the amount of time spent engaged in learning tasks is related to student performance….”(Abadzi, ” Instructional Time Loss in Developing Countries: Concepts, Measurement, and Implications” World Bank Res Obs (2009) 24 (2): 267-290, http://wbro.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/2/267.full.pdf) The issue of multiple shifts is important and could be a significant factor determining learning and one that definitely warrants a careful study. I know that anecdotal instances are not of any help, but when I was in grade school, I have always wondered why the top six students from the graduating class always came from the morning shift.  In high schools, it was worse, students were placed in sections according to their past year’s performance, and the lower the section was, the later their shift was. In a school where three shifts were employed, the poorest of the learners took the late-afternoon-evening shift. Now, these are all anecdotal but these instances illustrate that these factors need to be studied carefully.

Would it satisfy the international donor community that the Philippines would embark on a heroic last minute effort?  My answer is that this question is the wrong one to ask.  The Philippine government must do what is good for its citizens.

“The views expressed here are those of the author and do not represent Georgetown University.”

Sunday, May 6, 2012

"Language Is More than Culture and Culture Is More than Language"

by Birgit Brock-Utne


Abstract:
Language is more than culture and culture is more than language. The paper discusses
especially the relationship between the language used for schooling and the content of the
learning material and of school culture itself. Often textbooks for children in developing
countries are written and published abroad in a foreign language and are adopted for use
without any modification. Sometimes one may find learning material in local languages
which is just direct translations of curriculum material made abroad, normally in excolonizing
countries and with content from a foreign culture. The paper also discusses the
model whereby the content of curriculum material is local but the language used is the excolonial
language. There are e.g. also well-known authors who write from Africa and
describing African culture but in the ex-colonial languages. The best model would be to
have learning content and texts taken from the local culture written in the local language.
This model is, however, seldom found.

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The above is the abstract from a paper by Birgit Brock-Utne from the Institute for Educational Research at the University of Oslo (http://www.netreed.uio.no/conferences/conf2005/Birgits%20paper.pdf). This paper is so relevant to one of the issues Philippine basic education faces. It is an issue that has lingered for several decades. Data do not indicate that the medium of instruction plays a major role in the high dropout rate in Philippine schools. However, there is a clear need to take action to preserve and nurture the nation's diverse set of languages and culture.


This year, the DepEd's K to 12 curriculum embarks on an ambitious project of using the mother tongue as the medium of instruction for K-3:


"Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education. The mother tongue will be the medium of instruction from kindergarten to grade 3. This includes the following: Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Tausug, Maguindanaoan, Maranao, and Chabacano. Medium of instruction will be English and Filipino starting grade 4" (http://www.gov.ph/k-12/)


Twelve languages have been included as medium of instruction for the first four years of formal schooling. The Philippines is indeed blessed with a rich diversity in mother tongues. And equally true, the country is also diverse in its history and culture. Although predominantly Roman Catholic, there are other religions to which Filipinos belong. Yet, amidst all these differences, the Philippines has always been striving to become one nation,


"We should become tri-lingual as a country.
Learn English well and connect to the World.
Learn Filipino well and connect to our country.
Retain your dialect and connect to your heritage."

The languages in the Philippines, at least in the written form, are not as dramatically different from English as other languages in Asia. Most of the languages in the Philippines use Roman letters and numbers are Hindu-Arabic. This is in striking contrast to its neighbors like China, Vietnam and Thailand. Spanish colonization for hundreds of years has shaped the Philippines into a nation quite distinct from its neighbors. Nonetheless, even after hundreds of years, there still lives a unique Filipino culture, rich in tradition and heritage.

The diversity in culture and tradition is a national treasure that needs to be nurtured and preserved. Language is indeed part of culture and for this reason, the mother tongue must be part of education. The question of how the mother tongue may be used for education is separate. This question requires evaluation of how effective instruction in the mother tongue is. As Brock-Utne underscores, mother tongue instruction is so much more than just using the language. In addition, there is also the question of resources. Queena Lee-Chua, in her Inquirer article, wrote:

"....There is a lot of controversy on the medium of instruction in schools. A cursory search of the Net reveals multiple viewpoints, backed by studies big and small.

I prefer to defer to the Singaporeans, the best in the world in math and science (and excellent in English). In melting-pot Singapore, English is a required language starting from preschool. Textbooks in the major subjects are in English.


But students have to master another language, most likely their native tongue, whether Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Indian, which are taught in culture classes.


There has been a move in our country recently, backed by Unesco, among others, to use the mother tongue in the early grades. On the whole, I think this has merit, but unless good math textbooks, for example, are available in the mother tongue for preschool and first grade, then this move may be premature...."


At the end of a talk by Dr. Milwida M. Guevara, Synergeia’s President and Chief Executive Officer, years ago in a meeting sponsored by Johns Hopkins University, she noted that text that uses pizza to teach children fractions do not help much since some Filipino children have not seen pizza pies. Perhaps, it would have been more helpful to use "bibingka" (a type of rice cake from the Philippines). This is a very simple example of what Brock-Utne is saying about going beyond the language in using it as a medium of instruction. It is the best model yet it is rarely found around the world. The reason is that it requires a lot of resources to produce learning materials that not only uses the mother tongue of the pupils, but also makes use of experiences or instances that are local or familiar to the students.


I left the Philippines in 1987 but I had visited years ago and spent quite sometime in Paete, Laguna. I was amazed at how popular some of the American shows are in the Philippines. I am sure that this may not be the case for regions that are more remote, especially those which do not have electricity. Nonetheless, I would not be surprised that some Filipino children would know much more about NBA players than I do. But since I have a 5-year old son, I probably could compete with Filipino children on shows that cater to young viewers. I still know much of the trains of Sodor, their names and respective numbers.


Orasyon by Isaac V. Cagandahan, Paete Woodcarving
Photo by Manny Baldemor


The elementary schools in Paete provided me a glimpse of how culture interacts with early childhood education. Most of the teachers grew up in the same town so these individuals are very much familiar with what their young pupils had encountered or experienced at their homes. What is required then is to find a local context for math and science lessons. This is really where much effort and innovation are needed. It is not so much about the language. For example, it is a challenge to teach students the four seasons when Paete and all of the Philippines really experience only two, wet and dry. But in an internet-connected world, photos and stories could now be shared. A Paete elementary school teacher wrote:


"My co teacher's lesson in Science is about the 4 seasons and today we are lucky to see those pictures in New Jersey of Paetenians, which our pupils saw today. (Quinale Elementary School)." (http://paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=893)


Years ago, I also wrote the following in the same forum for Paetenians:


The true test of the science lessons (http://paete.org/forums/viewforum.php?f=12) lies in our daily lives. Paete is unique in its great presence on the internet. Both forum and the private mailing list witness lively conversations among Paetenians. Our understanding of science will be revealed by the conversations we carry. Science will touch almost every issue we need to face in the future. Our politics will reflect how much we understand science as we try to tackle the various challenges Paete is facing. Our choices will reveal the real scores. It is in the way we face issues that are relevant for the well-being of Paete, will we see our understanding of science.


Smog




Early morning in Paete, Laguna
Same as previous photo, but taken at noon


Discussions regarding air quality in Paete are important. There are economic factors that need to be considered. But more importantly, there are questions regarding health. How we address this challenge involves consideration of facts. The following science lessons provide good starting points for discussing this issue:


http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1192
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=996
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=962
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=748
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1114


Waste Management


As the town of Paete embarks on a Zero Waste management, education is crucial. An understanding of how we create waste, how waste affects the environment are necessary to draw the right action. The following science lesson will be particularly helpful:


http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1174


Tourism


Being declared as the "Carving Capital of the Philippines" in addition to the natural beauty of Paete does pave the way for opportunities for a vibrant tourism industry. The following lessons can be helpful in understanding how we may be able to preseve the natural beauty of Paete:


http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=952
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=885


Livelihood


Economics is important. Livelihood projects are necessary as Paete addresses issues of poverty. The mayor has recently outlined various livelihood programs. Under each of these programs, there are science lessons that are now available. These lessons may be helpful in understanding what these programs entail.


1. TINAPANG TILAPIA
We have an on going tilapia hatchery in our river near the mouth of the lake. We have completed the seminar on tinapang tilapia. Our plan is to supply raw tilapia to the people and the Municipio will buy the tinapa from them. We will handle the packaging and marketing to major supermarkets in Metro Manila. Raw (live) tilapia would cost Php 50 / kg of 6 pcs per kilo. We can sell the tinapa (6 pcs/kg) for Php 90-100.


Science lesson(s):
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1060
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=885


2. CHARCOAL BRIQUETTE
Charcoal briquette production from bio waste is also one livelihood project that we are pursuing right now. At the moment, we have one set of machine ( locally manufactured at Php 90,000 / set) producing 60 kg of charcoal briquette per day. Raw materials are free, and almost unlimited i.e. water lily, coconut husk, palay husk; busil ng mais; banana leaves, etc. We are selling the briquetted charcoal at Php 20 per kg.


Science Lesson(s):
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=765


3. GOAT RAISING
Upgraded "Bower breed" of goats will be raised at sitio Papatahan. We are planning to develop a 10 hectare area for this purpose. We will start with 20 does worth Php 10,000 each and one ram worth Php 25,000. Rate of kidding is 1-2 kids twice a year. We can sell the goats at Php 4,000 per head at 4 months old. Milk can be marketed at Php 30 per litter.


Science Lesson(s):
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=981




4. COFFEE PLANTATION
Because of coffee shortage in the country (according to NESTLE Phil), this is becoming a popular agri venture in Paete. About thirteen (13) hectares in sitio Macumbo and Sta. Ana are already planted with coffee. The first harvest is expected middle of next year.


Science Lesson(s):
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=753




5. REHABILITATION OF LANZONES
This is a flagship project of our Municipal Dept. of Agriculture. We have idenfified 15 lanzones plantation with an average area of 1,000 sq. meters each to be rehabilitated. Prunning, scraping of barks, proper irrigation, and fertilizer application are some of the procedures for the rehabilitation program. After a year, we expect significant improvement in production. The second phase is expansion. Grafted lanzones will be distributed to upland farmers which are expected to bear fruits within 7 years as compared to 25 years starting from seeds.


Science Lesson(s):
http://www.paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=952




6. BAMBOO SETUM AND BATIKULING CLONING
A 4 hectare demonstration farm in sitio Macumbo is earmarked for this project. It will be a tripartite agreement between the Municipality of Paete, the private lot owner and the Eco-system Research and Development Bureau of DENR. The MOA is expected to be signed within this year. About 50 different species of bamboo (including ornamental) will be propagated in the demo farm. The bamboo will be an alternative material for wood for our handicraft industry. Batikuling, the major wood species used by our wood carvers together with other species such as "gemilina" will be cloned and planted in the 4 hectare demo farm. While waiting for these woods to mature, as a continuous source of raw material for our wood carving industry, inter cropping of high value crops such as herbal/ medicinal plants, corn, garlic, peanut etc will be part of the livelihood project of the farmers. The seminars for Bamboo setum propagation and Batikuling cloning have been conducted by ERDB last month.


Science Lesson(s):
http://paete.org/forums/viewtopic.php?t=1193


The true test of how much science we are understanding will lie in the decisions that we make in the future. It will be evident in the conversations that we share. It will show, without any doubt, in how we live our lives.


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Science education in the mother tongue should go much deeper than just using the local language. And in the same token, nurturing the mother tongue and culture is so much more than using it as a medium of instruction in early childhood education. The preservation of one's culture rests on higher education. Studies on the mother tongue (literature, traditions, culture, arts) need to be promoted in colleges and universities. There should be courses in universities that focus on the literature and culture of the various regions of the country. Higher education is the proper place to cultivate the various languages of the nation. And it is only from this environment, would the country gain enough manpower to advance a genuine mother tongue based education. It is only through scholarly work that these languages will prosper and reach the academic level. This is where the first step needs to be taken. Much of the drive towards mother tongue instruction comes from the fear that the use of a foreign language demotes the native language and culture. What will promote local language and culture is not instruction in the early years but the existence of scholars and researchers in the field. Only with expertise in the mother tongue and culture, would the Philippines have the required teachers to implement mother tongue based - multilingual education.

Teaching the students from the perspective of where they are requires considerable effort from educators. Lessons in schools need to be tailored according to the experiences at home and in the community. Paete, for example, with its tradition in the arts, can innovatively construct lessons in math and science that are related to its rich tradition in wood carving, paper mache, clog-making, paintings, music and drama. In Annandale, Virginia, there is an elementary school that currently focuses on integrating the arts into all the subjects:

"Woodburn teachers strive to integrate the fine and communicative arts into all instruction throughout the school day. We believe that arts integration enhances learning for all students, particularly visual, tactile, and kinesthetic learners, and those whose home language is not English. Using the arts to learn more traditional academic subjects provide natural connections for differentiating instruction to meet the needs of all students. Music, drama, visual arts and poetry, for example, are major tools that appeal to the visual tactile, auditory and kinesthetic learners' needs.

This provides students with multiple ways to remember, transfer and apply their learning. When the arts are integrated into academic subjects, instruction is likely to be more active, hands-on, personally meaningful and vivid for students - all research-based techniques proven to increase the rate and retention of student learning. Educating students using the arts also provides a foundation for their appreciation of and participation in the arts as life-long learners."
Figure taken from http://www.fcps.edu/WoodburnES/woodburn_arts_integration.html
 The Philippine Congress should realize that mother tongue based multilingual education can not be realized by simple legislation and DepEd should not use this aspect to promote its new K to 12 curriculum. Both actions will only do harm to the country's treasured culture.



Note: To learn more about art integration please visit:

http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/educators/how-to/series/arts-integration-beta/arts-integration-in-practice-beta.aspx

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Update: UNESCO's Regional Bureau for Education in Africa has recently released a planner's guide for introducing native culture and language into education:

Figure downloaded from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002162/216270e.pdf


"For it to be useful to as many countries as possible, the guide is based on a general conceptual design. However, since the concern is to show that the introduction of African languages and cultures in education is feasible in Africa today, the guide draws inspiration from concrete cases of the African reality and, more specifically, from success stories in the area under consideration. To that end, the guide is based on a set of assumptions.

A “fictitious” country: This guide does not explicitly mention any country. However, it refers to the experiment of a multilingual basic education continuum in a country of Francophone West Africa. This continuum comprises three elements: A nursery (3 years), en elementary school (5 years), post‐primary education (4 years).

The use of African languages as media of instruction‐learning is a decision obtained in the framework law on education and its implementing orders now need to be issued.

The use of African languages as a media of instruction – learning is a constituent of a more extensive programme, that of the global reform of the education system without which the use of national languages would not have a solid basis.

The model of bilingualism adopted in this guide is additive bilingualism. Contrary to the widespread practice consisting in using African languages during the first two or three years of schooling and abandoning them immediately after to switch to a foreign language, this guide suggests the coexistence of the national African language and French throughout primary school and during the early part of the post‐primary cycle, in proportions that are well defined in the contribution of each medium to learning.

The experiment envisaged here covers a 10 year period: a primary education cycle of 6 years and 4 years of post‐primary education which generally corresponds to the junior secondary level.

Another 10 year period is spent expanding the innovation with a view to its
progressive generalization."

The pilot program, covering about 100 schools and 600 teachers and five languages, costs about US$ 11 million.

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By: Modesto Sa-onoy
ONE SIGNIFICANT aspect of the K to 12 Program of the Department of Education is the use of the child’s native language during the first three years of his schooling. In our case that is Hiligaynon.
It is believed that the use of the native tongue for toddlers and children hastens understanding of concepts and the absorption of knowledge compared to English, a second language or now considered a third language because the emphasis is on Tagalog or euphemistically called Filipino but fundamentally Tagalog.
There are opponents of this program, not the least of which is the use of the native language. Some felt that the non-Tagalog children will be disadvantaged because they had to study two national languages – Tagalog and Hiligaynon while those of the Tagalog region will not be burdened by another language.
English will also be introduced gradually thus the Visayan child will be studying three language to the Tagalog’s two.
In private school, the children will also have the advantage of getting English ahead of those in the public schools so that those in the public school will again be disadvantaged. One militant group claims the use of the native tongue in public school and English in private school is anti-poor.
Anyway that is just another opinion.
We have one problem with the use of Hiligaynon. What kind of alphabet shall we use and what are the rules of grammar to guide in the formulation of sentences or the spelling of native words?
Let us take the case of tao or should it be tawo to refer to man or person. Spoken, the difference is not so perceptible but written, which is the correct spelling? If spelled astao, then the pronunciation will be different from that of tawo.
Even the commonly used word as barangay can be problematic. Is this the correct spelling as it is pronounced? Or should we use baranggay to make it right? The way we spell this word now, the pronunciation is different – ba-ra-ngay.
The problem in the use of the native Hiligaynon is that, unlike English, there is no standard dictionary or rules of grammar.
Take the case of our common way of saying, “kadto ka lang di.” Translated to English this should read “just go here.” This is grammatically wrong, but it is right when spoken as we mostly do.
What kind of reading material shall we use that has the right spelling and grammar as in the spoken language?
Has DepEd already printed this reading material for our kids or will the subjects, using Hiligaynon rely on the popularly spoken, albeit grammatically incorrectly constructed sentences and pronunciation or wrongly spelled words?
I have not seen any Hiligaynon educational material but considering the absence of a dictionary and standard rules of grammar I wonder what kind of material will be used.
There is also the problem of terminologies. Which one will prevail? Shall we say “dyip” for the passenger jeep or use the right spelling “jeep” which is also a concoction of “general purpose (gp) vehicle”?
How about “titser”? Should we continue to use this or insist on the right English “teacher”?
In arithmetic we can have a problem. Shall we use the English numbers or the Hiligaynon, “isa”, “duha”, “tatlo” and “duha ka pulo ug  (pulog) lima”?
As mandated the teacher has to use the native numbers but parents had already been using the English numbers even before the child could walk. Of course we know the “close, open, close, open” ritual for babies even in the rural areas.
It would be interesting for our local officials to take a look at the materials to be used in the lowest rung of the educational system because we could be creating more confusion and miseducation at this low level of the ladder rather than help improve the system.
Language is vital in education, that is a given, but language must be taught right. We insist on correct grammatical construction of sentences, logical presentation of thought and proper use the words to convey the right meaning.
Language, properly understood and conveyed is one of the main, if not the initial requirement for higher education. While we agree with education officials on the efficacy of native language use at the lower level there are circumstances in our case that are not present in other countries, for instance the level of development of the native language.
As I noted earlier, we do not have the approved dictionary and rules of grammar that insure that the native language that we use and teach is the right one. I can cite hundreds of differences in our language use – written and spoken that will put a lot of stress on our teachers as to which is correct.
Without an accepted dictionary or grammar what will guide the teachers?